The research was conducted by Ipec with 2,600 interviewees of 18 years and over in the 5 regions of Brazil, between November 25th in 2022 to January 26th in 2023 . The interviews were by phone with an electronic questionnaire, using a CATI system (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview).
The questionnaire was developed by ITS, together with IPEC and the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication.
Weighting factors were calculated by Ipec for the correction of demographic quotas, based on data provided by PNAD-IBGE.
The survey sample is representative of the Brazilian population aged 18 years or over and ensures independent reading of the results by geographic region of Brazil, with a margin of error of +/- 2 percentage points with a 95% confidence level.
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Highlights of The Research
DO YOU BELIEVE THAT MORE ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS HAVE BEEN HAPPENING AS A RESULT OF GLOBAL WARMING?
HAVE YOU EVER VOTED FOR A CANDIDATE BASED ON THEIR PROPOSALS TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT?
TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE THAT INDIGENOUS PEOPLE PROTECT THE FOREST?
TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE WITH THE DEMARCATION OF INDIGENOUS LANDS, MEANING THE GOVERNMENT GRANTING POSSESSION AND USE OF THESE LANDS ONLY TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLE?
TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU AGREE WITH THE CREATION OF THE MINISTRY OF NATIVE PEOPLE, MEANINGINDIGENOUS PEOPLE, UNDER THE LULA GOVERNMENT?
Climate Change and Global Warming
The third edition of the study indicates a decrease in the proportion of Brazilians concerned about the environment, although a majority remain concerned. Nevertheless, only two out of ten Brazilians say they are highly aware of global warming and climate change issues. Among Internet non-users, the share of respondents who are highly aware of the topic in 2022 was higher than that in 2021, which indicates that the circulation of information on global warming and climate change is not limited to the Internet.
In its 2022 edition, the study investigated environmental events as well as how strongly the population feels about them being caused by global warming. There is almost a unanimous perception among Brazilians that, in the past years, there has been an increase in food prices, air pollution, temperature, or in the cost of electricity bills.
Women, the left-leaning population, and those who define themselves as black show more concern about global warming impacts in the future and how global warming could harm themselves and their families. When investigating who could contribute more to solving climate change, there was a difference between age cohorts: the youngest sample (18 to 24 years old) most frequently mentions that citizens should help solve climate change, whereas among the population aged 55 or older, there is a stronger attribution of responsibility to the government.
In turn, regarding individual behaviors to help preserve the environment, waste sorting, sharing environment-related information or news, or the act of not buying environment-damaging products are actions mentioned by most of the population. Furthermore, from 2021 to 2022, there was a reduction in the proportion of the population sharing environmental protection information, yet there was also an increase in the proportion of the population who voted for a politician based on their environmental protection proposals. Overall, the study finds increased issue engagement by women, those with a higher level of education, and those who politically define themselves as left leaning.
Almost the entire population has heard of forest fires in the Amazon region and, despite the increase in the proportion of those who believe that the number of forest fires has decreased within the past 10 years, most Brazilians believe that this number has increased. Most Brazilians say the fires are being caused by human activities. Economic activities, like logging, mining, and big agriculture are perceived as primarily responsible for forest fires in the region.
Most of the population says that the Amazon deforestation is a threat to the climate, jeopardizes Brazil’s image abroad, and harms the quality of life of the local population. Accordingly, most Brazilians disagree with the statement that Amazon deforestation is a need for economic growth.
One of the novelties of the 2022 edition of the study was the investigation of the means of communication people usually use to get information on Amazon deforestation. Unlike what happens when the population gets information on general topics, in the case of information on deforestation, there is greater use of traditional media channels, such as broadcast TV.
Perception of Policies for The Environment and for The Indigenous Peoples
The third edition of the study asked about a few policies oriented towards the indigenous peoples and the environment in general, having in mind the context of a Government administration change. Most of the Brazilian population supported indigenous-oriented policies, such as the creation of Ministério dos Povos Indígenas, particularly in the Northeast and North regions, and among the left-leaning population within the political spectrum. In regard to perspectives for the future, most of the population believes that Lula’s administration will be better than Bolsonaro's when it comes to protecting the environment, particularly in regions where the current president obtained the largest number of votes in the past elections.
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